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21 July 2017
10 Milestones of Constitutional History
1. The New Political Administration of the inhabitants of Roumeli, asia Minor, Mediterranean islands and Moldavia and Wallachia, Vienna 1797, of Rigas Velestinlis (1757-1798) which included: Revolutionary Proclamation, In Favor of the laws and the country, The Human Rights, The Constitution of the Hellenic Republic and Thourios was the starting point of the greek constitutionalism as it recognizes the prevalence of common political identity of all the citizens. 
2. The first greek Constitution of 1822 “Temporary Form of Government of Greece” instituted constitutionalism to the consciousness of Greek society and provided the principle of representation and the division of powers (more information)
3. The most important Constitution of the revolution period was drafted in Troizena in May 1827 by the Third National Assembly, which elected Ioannis Capodistrias as "Governor of Greece". The “Political Constitution of Greece” declared for the first time the principle of popular sovereignty: "Sovereignty lies with the people; all powers derive from the people and exist for the people and the Nation" (the Constitutions of national range)
4. The Constitution of 1844  established hereditary constitutional monarchy, recognized for the first time some fundamental individual rights (secrecy of letters, inviolability of home) and provided that the “Observance of the Constitution is entrusted to the patriotism of Greeks” (the period of Constitutional Monarchy)
5. The Constitution of 1864 followed a popular revolt and restored the principle of popular sovereignty; it was governed by the democratic principle, being the first Constitution of Democracy with a King as head of the State. Additionally, it established for the first time in the world, the principle of universal (direct and secret) ballot (the relevant period)
6. The most important changes made by the Revision of 1911, after the rise of Eleftherios Venizelos to the power, were the enhancement of individual freedoms ("the public law of the Hellenes") and of the Rule of Law, and the institutional modernization. Thus the Constitutional framework that lasted until 1974 was set (more information)
7. The declaration of the Republican Democracy. Following the revolution of September 1922 and with the decisive contribution of Alexandros Papanastasiou the “4th Athens Constituent Assembly” abolished, in March 25 1922, the monarchy and established a Republican Democracy. After the coming into force of the Constitution of 1925 and the dictatorships of Pangalos and Kondylis in 1925 and 1926, the republican democracy was finally established by the Constitution of 1927 (more information)
8. The Constitution of 1952 followed to a great extent the Constitution of 1911. It institutionalized parliamentarianism and awarded for the first time voting rights to women, as well as of the right to stand as candidates for parliamentary office (period 1952-1967)  
9. The Constitution of 1975. After democracy was reinstated, the Constitution of 1975 introduced the form of government of Parliamentary Democracy with president as head of stateς, it included a long list of individual and social rights and awarded extended powers to the President of the Republic. It also provided for the participation of the country to international organizations – and indirectly to the EEC (more information)
10. The Revisions of 1986, 2001 and 2008.

In March 1986 eleven (11) articles were amended, the powers of the President of the Republic were limited and it was decided to transpose text of the Constitution from purist into demotic Greek (read the document here)

The Revision of 2001 was extensive and “consensual”. It introduced, among others, new individual rights (protection of genetic identity, protection of personal data), new rules of transparency in political life (political financing, electoral expenditures, relations of media owners with the State, etc.) (read the document here)

The Constitution of 1975 was revised for the third time in 2008 in a limited number of provisions. Among them, the abolition of the professional incompatibility and the introduction of a specific procedure for the Parliament to oversee the implementation of the budget (read the document here))

 


 «Η νυξ της 3ης Σεπτεμβρίου 1843»
Επιζωγραφισμένη λιθογραφία, H. Martins, 51,5x70,5 εκ.
Συλλογή Έργων Τέχνης της Βουλής των Ελλήνων.